The last couple weeks of the Coursera class on ADHD focused on how to live with and manage ADHD symptoms without drugs. “Pills don’t teach skills” and whether parents of children with ADHD or adults with ADHD embrace the idea of medical therapy, drugs are not the only treatment approach for helping someone with ADHD thrive.
Students with ADHD need support both at home and within their school environment. In fact, the US Department of Education has put together a fairly comprehensive brochure on how to teach children with ADHD. After giving teachers some guidance on how to identify children with ADHD, it has three separate sections on how to help a child with ADHD be successful in the classroom. Although rumors abound about teachers that, subtly or not so subtly, have told parents to put their kids on ADHD drugs, that isn’t one of the teaching strategies. Instead the pamphlet focuses on instruction techniques, effective behavioral interventions, and classroom accommodations. It suggests a student with ADHD should sit closer to the teacher and farther from distracting kids. Wow, who would have thought? I know some elementary school teachers are resistant to “special” seating “privileges” for students with ADHD, perhaps referencing this official brochure will help parents get the seemingly minor accommodations their children need. Multiple times the brochure makes the point that children without ADHD also thrive in classrooms that are structured to help children with ADHD. Basically, these are strategies that can help any teacher be more effective regardless of the makeup of their classroom in any given year.
At home, one of the most effective treatments for children with ADHD is teaching their parents better behavior management strategies. By acknowledging that their child has below age-level-norm organizational, self-control, and coping skills, parents can structure the home environment with scaffolding supports to help the child succeed despite their ADHD symptoms. There are several different training programs for parents. Most have similar elements: stay calm and don’t get emotional, analyze what is working and what isn’t, rely on planning and praise to gain compliance, go to the child to give instructions — use eye contact and touch to get child’s attention before giving instructions, break large tasks into smaller ones, use labels, file cards, and other visual cues and organizers to make tasks less daunting, reduce time delays for consequences (positive and negative), and use warnings, “when-then”, token economies and time outs to guide behavior. Work with the child to create better habits and more effective behaviors. If the child is encouraged to help evaluate the results of the program, it can increase their commitment and desire to change.
One comprehensive parent behavioral training program covered in some detail was one developed by Russell Barkley. Dr. Barkley has written extensively about executive function, defiant children, and how to take charge of ADHD. Putting the effort into learning how to be a better parent for a child with ADHD is very worthwhile. Studies show that not only do children do better with more effective parenting, parental stress is also decreased and satisfaction is increased under these programs.
Adults with ADHD face slightly different challenges than kids with ADHD. Some of these challenges stem from the bad habits and/or negative thought patterns that can develop over a lifetime of living with ADHD. My next post, and the last in this series, will cover psychosocial treatments for adults with ADHD.